User experience model for augmented reality applications in urban heritage tourism

D Han, MC Tom Dieck, T Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

173 Citations (Scopus)


While Augmented Reality (AR) is increasingly being implemented across a number of industry sectors, an open issue remains over the emotional as well as experiential impacts of this new technology within urban cultural heritage tourism. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to create a tourist experience model for AR tourism applications in the context of urban heritage tourism. The data were collected through five focus groups with a total of 49 participants. A theoretical tourist experience model was generated using Hassenzahl’s [(2003). The thing and I: understanding the relationship between user and product. In M. A. Blythe, K. Overbeeke, A. F. Monk & P. C. Wright (Eds.), Funology (pp. 31–42). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers] model of user experience. Hassenzahl's (2003) model relies on the basic idea that product characteristics and features have an effect on the actual consequences. The data were analysed using thematic analysis in order to examine the alignment of themes according to previously identified themes from the literature as well as investigate new emergent themes from the focus groups. This study extends the theoretical aspect of the user experience model by Hassenzahl (2003) through empirical confirmation. The findings reveal that the user experience is formed by the correlation of product features and the perceptions and experiences of tourists. Due to the fact that successful implementation use cases of mobile AR applications is still limited, particularly within the tourism industry, the establishment of a comprehensive set of factors has been considered to be crucial for successful implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-61
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Heritage Tourism
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Augmented reality
  • Dublin AR
  • thematic analysis
  • tourist experience model
  • urban heritage tourism


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