Liveable streets in Hanoi: a principal component analysis

Peter Sanders, M Zuidgeest, K Geurs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Liveability along four streets in Hanoi, Vietnam is assessed. Hanoi is a rapidly growing metropolis characterised by high levels of personal motorized traffic. Two high traffic volume streets and two low traffic volume streets were studied using a mixed methods approach, combining the collection and analysis of quantitative and qualitative data on traffic volumes and liveability perceptions of its residents. The research methodology for this study revisits part of the well-known Liveable Streets study for San Francisco by Appleyard et al. (1981). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) shows that residents on both low traffic volume streets experience less traffic hazard and stress, including noise and air pollution, than neighbouring high traffic volume streets. In line with Appleyard, the study shows that low traffic volume streets were rated more liveable than high traffic volume streets. In contrast to Appleyard, however, the study also shows that traffic volumes are not correlated with social interaction, feeling of privacy and sense of home, which is likely caused by the high levels of collectivism typical for Vietnam. Finally, the study indicates a strong residential neighbourhood type dissonance, where a mismatch exists between preferences for living in peaceful and quiet streets and the actual home location of residents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-558
Number of pages12
JournalHabitat International
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Appleyard
  • Hanoi
  • Liveable streets
  • Principal component analysis
  • Social interaction
  • Traffic hazard
  • Vietnam


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